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Rupert Matthews Rupert Matthews has been fascinated by battlefields since his father took him to Waterloo at the age of nine. As an adult, Rupert wrote about many battles from the ancient world…
How Many Crusades Were There What Were The Military Results
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The Many Myths Of The Term ‘crusader’
Siege of Antioch, (20 October 1097–28 June 1098). It marked the arrival of the First Crusade in the Holy Land. The events set a pattern of betrayal, massacre and heroism that would mark future campaigns. By capturing Antioch, the Crusaders gained supply and reinforcement routes to the west.
After marching through the Seljuk lands, the Crusaders captured Edessa and reached the massive city of Antioch on 20 October 1097. Bohemond of Taranto, Raymond of Toulouse and Godfrey de Bouillon each commanded a division of the blockade lines. The Turkish garrison was led by Yaghi Sian, who called in an auxiliary army from Damascus and another from Aleppo, both of which were defeated by the Crusaders before reaching Antioch.
Siege of Antioch October 20, 1097 – June 28, 1098 Battle of Haran May 7, 1104 Siege of Edessa November 28, 1144 – December 24, 1144 Battle of Lisbon July 1, 1147 – October 25, 1147 July 1 July 1 1147 – July 28, 1148 Hattin Battle July 4, 1187 Battle of Jaffa August 5, 1192 Albigensian Crusade 1209 – 1229 Battle of Toulouse 1217 – 1218
Sometime during the winter, Bohemond made contact within the city with a Christian soldier named Firouz, who had command of the gate of the Two Sisters. On June 2, Firouz opened the gates, allowing the crusaders to enter and join the Christian inhabitants in the massacre of the Turks. Yaghi Sian was killed but his son Shams remained in the fort. Two days later a large Turkish army led by Kerbogha of Mosul arrived and besieged the Crusaders in Antioch. On June 10, a monk named Peter Bartholomew saw where the holy lance was hidden; When discovered, it boosted crusader morale.
Obama And The Crusaders
On June 28, the Crusaders marched into battle with the Holy Lance as their standard. The Crusader Knights scattered the lightly armored Turkish cavalry. At this point many of Kerbogha’s allies deserted him and the Turkish army disintegrated. Bohemond rushes back into Antioch to force Shams to surrender, captures the castle, and declares that he is now Bohemond, Prince of Antioch. What comes to mind when you think of the Crusades? Are the majestic and fearsome buff knights (in shining armor, of course) engaged in antagonistic quests to accomplish divine tasks in an evil world? Red cross on pure white backgrounds? Orlando Bloom?
This is not surprising. A quick look at our pop culture and politics in the West reveals a persistent fascination with the Crusades. Compared to popular representations, historical reality is more complex and often less heroic.
Imagine a man in the French city of Clermont in 1095. He was listening to Pope Urban II—the only pope he ever saw in person!—speak passionately about the need to fight in the Holy Land. His lord is convinced and gathers his men and resources. The man-at-arms bid farewell to his family and departed in 1096 after years of painful travel and military campaigns. He starves to death in Antioch, never seeing Jerusalem. His family will never know his fate. This is crusading.
Now imagine Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily. Frederick retook Jerusalem from the Muslims without fighting—helped by his knowledge of Arabic. He was crowned King of Jerusalem in 1229, but returned to Europe to find the Pope waging war on his lands. It was also crusading—at least for some, while others, like the Pope, disagreed.
The Crusades And The ‘evil’ Of Christianity
Finally, imagine an English knight in 1370. He plans to travel to Northeastern Europe to fight the non-Christians and help the Christians there expand their territory. He goes for a season, enjoys feasts and knightly friendship, then returns home and resumes his normal life, his reputation enhanced by his tour. You guessed it: it’s also crusading.
Crusading took many different forms, and the attempt to precisely define crusading has engaged historians in intense debate for more than 150 years.
Much debate among scholars concerns the identification of key features of the Crusade. Some, for example, consider only expeditions targeting Jerusalem or the Holy Land as crusades. This system is responsible for the traditional, numbered crusades (ie, First Crusade, Second Crusade, etc.).
Others downplay the importance of a specific goal and instead emphasize the characteristics of power and policy. These scholars ask, did the Pope authorize the trip? Do participants take vows and receive certain legal and spiritual privileges? Taking this approach would allow for a larger number of crusades, a larger geographical area and chronological spread. At the same time, some question whether the role of the authorities (ie the Pope) determined the crusade as much as grassroots enthusiasm among the common people. Instead, these scholars look for signs of mass popularity for an expedition. Others assert that the characteristics of crusading were so pervasive throughout medieval culture that it is impossible and misleading to attempt to define what was ultimately a crusade or not.
How Many Crusades Were There?
It is also fair to say that many scholars have recognized that in essence missing the forest for the trees and spending too much time searching for a precise definition!
The biblical story of the slaughter of the Amalekites and King Saul’s last stand with biblical soldiers, depicted as French crusaders, Crusader Bible, fol. 34v, 1244–54, Paris (The Morgan Library and Museum, New York)
If crusading is so distasteful, how do potential participants know what a crusade is? Remember our man-at-arms at Clermont in 1095? He (and his Lord) either observed preaching for a new expedition (perhaps emphasizing the papal proclamation, perhaps not), or heard people around him discussing it. Perhaps he also saw others making public vows and wearing the sign of the cross on their garments. He may have been aware of certain legal privileges designed to encourage participation and help protect property and families in the crusader’s absence. Or he may have heard a papal promise of a papal promise (in which case “redemption” meant some kind of spiritual benefit—the exact indulgence offered for crusading changed over time).
Finally, our man-at-arms is interested in crusading, but for others, someone in authority over them (or someone they love) may have told them it was happening or that they were going. Just like today, some people may be focused on their taxes; At times, especially in the later Middle Ages, church and secular authorities levied funds for new expeditions. Any or all of these factors may have attracted people’s attention, especially if they came from a family or region with a tradition of crusade participation. Meanwhile, those who were the target of crusader persecution needed only to approach an army surrounded by crosses.
What Were The Crusades?
While it is valuable to understand the Crusades from the perspective of the participants, it is equally important to seek out different perspectives. Internal criticism of the crusading movement was more limited than many today imagine. Criticisms are usually directed at specific expeditions or participants rather than about the idea of crusading in general or the underlying attitudes toward religion and violence that made crusading possible.
Muslim voices in the Iberian Peninsula (present-day Spain and Portugal), the Levant (eastern Mediterranean), or beyond describe the Crusades in various ways—often as simple territorial expansion, religious warfare, or a combination thereof. Two. Descriptions of the “Franks” (as the Crusaders were called) range from respect to derision to hostility.
Records from Jewish communities around the Mediterranean sometimes describe the indiscriminate brutality and fanatical fury of many crusaders, a theme also emphasized by Christians in Europe who did not conform to church teachings and were called “heretics”. Some accounts of the Crusades from the Byzantine Empire (a medieval state based on the remnants of the traditional Roman Empire) emphasize the purported “barbarism” and relative innocence of the crusaders. This article is about four feudal kingdoms founded in the Levant in 1100. For other uses, see Crusader States (disambiguation).
The Crusader States, also known as the Outremer, were four Catholic kingdoms
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