Horizon Scholarship Chamberlain – From September 2019 to October 2020, the German research vessel Polarstern of the Alfred Wegener Institute drifted into the frozen Arctic Ocean during the MOSAiC expedition. Within the framework of an international scientific collaboration, in which researchers from the Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf are also involved, a comprehensive genomic dataset has been collected from marine polar ecosystems. In the scientific journal PLOS Biology, researchers now describe how the dataset can help measure biodiversity and understand how sea ice loss due to climate change is affecting Arctic ecosystems.
During the MOSAiC expedition, the German research icebreaker Polarstern of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) spent a year drifting towards the central Arctic. This includes developing a deeper understanding of the role of the Arctic Ocean and its ecosystems in climate processes and improving current climate models. (Photo: AWI/Esther Horvath)
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Arctic ecosystems are the most affected by global warming, meaning the Arctic Ocean can serve as an indicator of the consequences of climate change and the persistence of Earth’s biodiversity. However, research in the Arctic is not easy: expeditions to the Arctic Ocean present enormous logistical challenges due to the inaccessibility of the North Pole, which is not the only reason this region is one of the best understood environments. On Earth.
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Microbes in sea ice and water bodies are the building blocks of these ecosystems, playing key roles in climate feedbacks and sustaining food, which are critical for conservation and ecosystem services. Marine organisms can also be used as bioindicators due to their rapid adaptive responses to environmental changes.
The German research icebreaker Polarstern has been drifting in frozen sea ice for a year since September 2019. The MOSAiC mission (“Multidisciplinary Drifting Observatory for Arctic Climate Research”) is the largest Arctic expedition in history, led by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Center for Polar and Oceanographic Research (AWI). Hundreds of scientists conducted a series of studies and collected samples related to the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice to better understand the role of the Arctic Ocean and its ecosystems in climate processes and to improve current climate models.
An international team of molecular biologists (“The Economics”) aimed to catalog the biodiversity and genetic background of Arctic marine ecosystems based on samples collected during the MOSAiC expedition. This will provide the basis for measuring changes in Arctic Ocean biodiversity and guide conservation efforts by identifying unique species and assessing their extinction risk. Researchers will sequence all genetic data from the marine organisms found in samples collected during the MOSAiC expedition. The project aims to provide open access to Arctic marine biodiversity resources to the scientific community.
The economic research team is jointly led by the Alfred Wegener Institute Bremerhaven and the University of East Anglia (UEA), and its work is supported by several partners including the Helmholtz Association, the German Research Foundation . , the Joint Genome Institute, USA, and the Earlham Institute, UK. The Institute for Quantitative and Theoretical Biology and PhD student Ellen Oldenburg, Dr. Ovidiu Popa and Institute Director Prof. Dr. Oliver Ebenhoeh presented the project.
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The group works to identify key factors that determine microbial dynamics in Arctic oceans. Once the functional roles of biome members are determined and the material and energy flows in Arctic ecosystems are understood, the role of these flows in global geochemical cycles can be assessed.
This work focuses on the interactions of bacteria and other plankton associated with microalgae to gain a deeper understanding of the functional relationships of individual organisms. Alain Oldenburg: “We are using information about microbiome composition, genome potential, and microbial cellular activity to develop models to improve our understanding of the microbiome and associated metabolic activities in response to a changing Arctic environment.”
A further goal is to develop predictive models that are predictive and scalable to cover a wide range of ecosystems. Prof. Ebenhöh: “The resulting model sheds light on the dynamics of Arctic microbial ecosystems over annual cycles. We hope that the model will provide insight into the mechanisms that stabilize ecosystem structure and dynamics. We also want to identify the factors that contribute to the most vulnerable ecosystems.
Preliminary findings from the MOSAiC EcoOmics group have now been published in PLOS Biology . The genome dataset represents one year of the life of an Arctic Ocean creature. This marine habitat is a treasure trove for discovering new biological processes that evolved in the harsh conditions of the Arctic.
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Dr. Katja Matfis, AWI and EcoOmics Team Coordinator: “This dataset will give us an unprecedented understanding of the importance of sea ice and associated organisms, particularly their role in maintaining the functioning of the Arctic marine ecosystems that underlie them. Climate change zone extreme pressures. MOSAiC gives us important insights into the future of Arctic ecosystems after 2050, when the Arctic Ocean is expected to be ice-free in summer.”
“This is the first and largest attempt to index the central Arctic Ocean through space and time,” said UEA Professor Dr Thomas Mock and one of the leaders of the EcoOmics project. Initial sampling was performed from the surface to the depths. These techniques include sequencing the genes, genomes and transcriptomes of natural microbial communities.
Ecomics will contribute to the body of knowledge on the concepts of the evolution of life on Earth and the consequences of climate change, which must also take into account polar organisms. These new insights from organismal time series data are critical for assessing the Arctic Ocean’s impacts, interactions, and relationships on our ecosystems.
Thomas Mock, William Bolton, John-Paul Balmont, Kevin Barry, Stefan Bertison, Jeff Bowman, Moritz Bakker, Gunnar Breitback, Ami Leah J. Chamberlain, Michael Cunliffe, Jesse Clemin, Oliver Ebenhoe, Sarah Lena Eggers, Allison F. Jesse A. Gardner, Rowe Wolf Greidinger, Mats A. Granskog, Charlotte Havermans, Thomas Hill, Clara J.M. Hope, Kirsten Cotter, Ode Larsen, Oliver ·Müller, Anya Nicolas, Alan Oldenburg, Ovidiu Popa, Swanzey Rogge, Hendrik Shokin, Hendrik Shokin, Kirsten Leechon Malm, Anders Tostenson, Klaus Valentin, Anna Vedder, Carey Berry, I. -M..A. Chen, Alicia Klum, Alex Copeland, Chris Daum, Emily Aello-Federos, Brian Foster, Bryce Foster , Igor V. Grigoriev, Marcel Huntman, Natalia Ivanova, Guo Ailun, Nikos C. Kirpids, Supradim ·Supratim Mukherjee, Krishnaveni T. K. Parania App. Reddy, Asaf Salamov, Simon Roux, Neha Varghese, Tanya Voick, Dongying Wu, Richard M. Leggett, Vincent Moulton, Katja Metaphys: Organisms of the Central Arctic Ocean Multi-omics to benchmark diversity changes, PLOS Biology (2022), October 17, 2022
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The CTD Garland water sampler is suspended from a crane at the extreme stern and is used to sample at different depths while recording various physical parameters. (Photo: AWI/Esther Horvath) As the current healthcare environment continues to evolve, there is a need for qualified nurses, especially in acute care settings. But the financial burden of education prevents many potential nurses from pursuing their own path, exacerbating the workforce shortage.
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