When Were Friendly Recognition Signals First Used In Military Aircraft

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When Were Friendly Recognition Signals First Used In Military Aircraft

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Title: Hill’s album of biography and art: containing portraits and pen sketches of many persons who were and are prominent as religious, military heroes, inventors, financiers, scientists, explorers, writers, doctors, actors , lawyers, musicians, artists, poets, sovereigns, humorists, orators and statesmen, together with chapters dealing with history, science, and important work in which prominent people were engaged at various periods of time

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Arp enough to keep the horse from slipping. The shoe should be removed and reset once every five or six weeks. It is true that some workers can fit a shoe in such a way as to make it available for months; but it is considered better to remove the shoe more often and reattach it. In this way the leg is kept in good order, and the horse has benefited. If the shoe is left too long, the coffin and pastern joints become sore, the knees are sprained, the leg cords contract and the horse stumbles in its gait. The use of rasp should be avoided as much as possible in the shoeing horse. The front of the hoof wall should never be berasped, so that it does not become thin and fragile and finally destroyed. Here the lower end of this part of the hoof has been neglected for too long, and when the old shoe is removed, the rasp removes the extra growth, but nothing else should be filed. Many bad horses is due to ignorance, brutality and lack of attention of those entrusted with this important work. i am:

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Identification, frid or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control. It uses a transponder that lists for an interrogation signal and th sds a response that identifies the broadcaster. IFF systems usually use radar frequencies, but other electromagnetic frequencies, radio or infrared, can be used.

It allows military and civilian air traffic control interrogation systems to identify aircraft, vehicles or forces as friendly, as opposed to neutral or hostile, and determine the -the level and their range from the interrogator. IFF is used by both military and civilian aircraft. The IFF was first developed during the Second World War, with the arrival of radar, and several fridly fire incidents.

If an IFF interrogation receives no response or an invalid response, the object is not positively identified as a foe; fridly forces may not respond well to IFF for various reasons such as equipment malfunction, and parties in the area not involved in combat, such as civilian aircraft, will not be equipped with IFF.

The IFF is a tool within the wider military action of Combat Identification (CID), the characterization of objects found in the combat field accurately enough to support operational decisions. The broadest characterization is that of cold, emy, neutral, or unknown. CID can not only reduce fire incidts fridly, but also contributes to the overall tactical decision-making.

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With the successful use of radar systems for air defense during World War II, fighters were immediately faced with the difficulty of distinguishing fridly aircraft from hostile ones; until then, aircraft were flown at high speed and altitude, making visual identification impossible, and targets showed up as featureless blips on the radar screen. This led to incidents such as the Battle of Barking Creek, over Great Britain,

Already before the deployment of their Chain Home (CH) radar system, the RAF had considered the IFF problem. Robert Watson-Watt had presented patents on such systems in 1935 and 1936. By 1938, researchers at Bawdsey Manor began experiments with “reflectors” consisting of dipole antennas tuned to resonate with the primary frequency of CH radars. When a pulse from the CH transmitter hits the aircraft, the antennas resonate for a short time, increasing the amount of energy returned to the CH receiver. The antenna was connected to a motorized switch that periodically shorted it, preventing it from producing a signal. This caused the return on the CH set to be periodically long and short as the antenna was switched on and off. In practice, the system was found to be too unreliable to use; the return was very depdt on the direction the plane was moving relative to the CH station, and often returned little or no additional signal.

There was a suspicion that this system would be of little use in practice. When this turned out to be the case, the RAF turned to a very different system that was also being planned. This consisted of a set of tracking stations using HF/DF radio direction. Their aircraft radios were modified to emit a 1 kHz tone at 14 seconds per minute, which allowed the stations enough time to measure the aircraft’s bearing. Several such stations were assigned to each “sector” of the air defce system, and st their measurements to a plot station at sector headquarters, which used triangulation to determine location of the aircraft. Known as “pip-squeak”, the system worked, but it was very busy and did not show its information directly to the radar operators. A system that worked directly with the radar was clearly desirable.

The first active IFF transponder (transmitter/responder) was the IFF Mark I which was used experimentally in 1939. This used a regenerative receiver, which fed a small amount of the amplified output back into the input, strongly amplifying small ev signals as long as they were of a single frequency (like Morse code, but unlike voice transmissions) . They tuned in to the signal from the CH radar (20–30 MHz), amplifying it so strongly that it was broadcast back by the aircraft’s antenna. Since the signal was received at the same time as the original CH signal reflection, the result was an illuminated “blip” on the CH display that was easily identifiable. In testing, it was found that the unit often overcomes the radar or produces a signal too small to be se, and at the same time, new radars were being introduced using new frequcies.

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Instead of putting the Mark I into production, a new IFF Mark II was introduced in early 1940. Mark II had a series of separate tuners inside tuned to vary the radar bands that passed through a motorized switch, while an automatic gain control solved the problem of it sding out too much signal. Mark II was technically complete as the war began, but a lack of sets meant that it was not available in quantity and only a small number of RAF aircraft carried it until the Battle of Britain. Pip-squeak was kept in operation during this period, but as the Battle raged, IFF Mark II was soon put into full operation. Pip-squeak was still used for areas on the ground where the CH did not cover, as well as an emergency guidance system.

By 1940 the complex Mark II system was reaching its limits while new radars were constantly being introduced. By 1941, a number of sub-models were introduced covering different combinations of radars, common naval ones for example, or those used by the RAF. But the introduction of radars based on the magnetron of the microwave-frequcy cavity rdered this obsolete; there was simply no way to make a responder that operates in this range using contemporary electronics.

In the 1940s, English engineer Freddie Williams had suggested that a single, separate frequency be used for all IFF signals, but at the time it did not appear that there was an urgent need to change the existing system. With the introduction of the magnetron, work on this concept began at the Telecommunications Research Establishment as the IFF Mark III. This was to become the standard for

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