Where Was The Former St John’s Military Academy Located – 53°24′24″N 2°58′53″W / 53.406588°N 2.981420°W / 53.406588; -2.981420 Coordinates: 53°24′24″N 2°58′53″W / 53.406588°N 2.981420°W / 53.406588; -2.981420
St John’s Market, in the lower left-hand corner of this map, shown in relation to St John’s Guards, St George’s Hall and Lyme Street Station
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The exterior of St John’s Market, circa 1835. The Row Street front was altered in 1881 and the Elliot Street front was substantially rebuilt in 1891.
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St John’s Market was a municipal retail market hall in Liverpool, Gland, housed in a purpose-built building built between 1820 and 1822 to designs by John Foster, junior. It quickly became the model for market halls erected elsewhere in the UK in the 19th century. In 1881 and 1891, the north and south facades of the building were changed; it was demolished in 1964, making way for the 1969 St Johns shopping centre, the western half of which occupied the site of the hall.
The increase in urban population in the 18th and 19th centuries and Wales due to industrialization gave impetus to changes in ownership and the provision of physical market places for the sale of foodstuffs and other products in cities. More than 300 Acts of Parliament were passed between 1801 and 1880, enabling the newly created local authorities to acquire market rights from their manor owners and finance the construction of market facilities. From around 1800 market halls emerged as the ‘perfect form’ of the market and the city followed suit by bringing its markets indoors in covered buildings providing amenities such as water, lighting and heating. Market St. John’s, an early large-scale design, became the model for other venues, including Birmingham’s Market Hall.
Market rights in Liverpool derive from a 1207 charter granted by King John; though long held by the Molyneux family, they were leased to the Liverpool Corporation in 1672 for a term of 1,000 years, and in 1773 transferred to the corporation in perpetuity.
In the early 19th century, before the new St John’s Market, the Liverpool Retail Market was a street market located in an area around St George’s Church (closed in 1897, the site now houses the Victoria Memorial
File:historic Old St. John’s Church, Utica New York.jpg
And thus the demand grew, spreading more and more into the neighboring roads, and becoming a serious annoyance and hindrance to all business not immediately connected with it. Characteristic of a street market, it provided little protection against bad weather, which became the subject of many serious complaints.
The Corporation of Liverpool decided to remedy the observed problems by moving the market to a new location protected from the weather and without obstructing public thoroughfares. The city expanding to the east of the Mersey, the Corporation chose as the site for the proposed hall a former ropeway a third of a mile (600 metres) east of the existing market in an area named after the church of St. St. John’s (demolished 1898), on the west side of Great Charlotte Street and with Elliot Street to the south, Market Street to the west and Roe Street to the north.
Construction was begun in August 1820 and completed in February 1822, to designs by John Foster, junior, architect to the corporation, at a cost, exclusive of the land, of about £35,000.
The basic plan of the market hall is rectangular, 549 feet (167 m) long and 135 feet (41 m) wide, enclosing an area of just under 2 acres (0.81 ha) covered with rubber. A reviewer of 1835 noted that ‘this… was, if not the first, one of the first markets in the kingdom in which the principle of covering the whole under one roof was tried; at least on a scale of considerable magnitude.”
The Refurbishment Of The 200 Year Old St John’s Waterloo Church
The roof was constructed in five sections, two of which were raised considerably above the others, forming a pillar of light pierced with windows providing light and, swinging in their centers, allowing air to circulate. The connecting beams of the lower trusses were continued through the light-opening, from one side of the building to the other, connecting the whole together; and at the point of their intersection with the gutter beams were supported by five rows of cast-iron columns, 116 in all,
Each 25 feet (7.6 m) tall. A total of 136 windows are provided in the upper and lower floors of the roof.
The exterior is built with brick, in a plain and simple style of architecture. The piers were designed at regular intervals around which the moldings and stringers broke. Between them were inserted two rows of windows, the lower semicircular, with stone architraves and imposts; the upper floor is finished with segmental brick arches. The whole is raised on a stone plinth, under which, where the slope of the ground permits, there is a rusticated stone base. There were eight transepts, three on each side and one on each d, the main transepts were faced by Italianate Ionic columns on pedestals, with tablature above and portals with semicircular arches.
The building had a stone finial in the form of a black bird, now in the Museum of Liverpool.
St John’s Churchyard, Wapping
It was previously displayed in the trans lobby of BBC Radio Merseyside on Hanover Street and at the Merseyside Maritime Museum from 2007 to 2009.
Shops a to b and b to c are occupied by butchers, pork dealers, etc. e is the superintdt’s accounting; f, collector’s office; g g, premises for market scales. Shops h to i are occupied by orchardists; those k to l are occupied by fish-houses; and the shops from m to n are occupied by salt, butter, and cheese merchants, and by bakers of bread; o o are bacon stands; p p are tables and bches for eggs and butter; q q, for selling poultry; r r, butchers; s s s, bches; t, fruit stands; u, fish stalls; v v, vegetable stalls; w w, potato and egg stalls; x x x x, pumps; u, market street; z, Elliot Street; &, Roe Street and á, Great Charlotte Street
In the hall and around its walls there were 62 shops, originally occupied by butchers, fishmongers, bakers, cheesemongers, poultrymen, gamemongers, etc. Taking advantage of the fall of the ground on the west side, next to the market street, the shops on this side had warehouses below, facing the street. Five longitudinal aisles divided the hall – the central one, 7 yards (6.4 m) wide – intersected by five cross aisles. The squares or islands formed by the intersection of these avenues were subdivided into stalls for general dealers.
The hall was lighted by 144 gas lamps and supplied with water by four pumps, one of which discharged hot water. A large clock hangs in the center of the hall on the roof.
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By 1835 plans were drawn up to erect new buildings on Great Charlotte Street opposite St Market. John, exclusively for the wholesale and retail sale of fish, which trade was to be excluded from the larger market.
The simplicity and cogency of the arrangement will be apparent on inspection, and will do great credit to the distinguished architect by whom the building was designed. The beautiful prospect formed by the views of columns 183 yards long, especially in the evening, lighted by successive rows of brilliant gas-lamps; and the grandeur of the effect produced by the continuous extension of the vision in every direction of the busy scene, form altogether a picture which must be seen to be fully appreciated. It only remains to add that the viltion is complete. In summer the atmosphere is filled with pleasant coolness, while in winter it is all that can be desired as a protection against the inconveniences of the season.
The British architectural historian Catherine A. Morrison describes St John’s Market as “the first of the great nineteenth-century market halls … the first in the form of a fully covered general trading hall” and notes that there is no clear precedent for the design.
The interior of the market is the subject of an oil painting, St John’s Market, Liverpool by Charles Trevor Prescott, done sometime between 1892 and 1899 and now in the Walker Art Gallery;
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And on another, St John’s Market (1827) by Samuel Austen, in pcil and watercolour, now in the Lady Lever Art Gallery,
The building has been altered at least twice in its history; in 1881 a new shop front was added to Rowe Street, and in 1891 the Elliott Street facade was thoroughly remodeled in the Renaissance style.
A note in an electrical trade journal from 1894 reads: “Liverpool – The Markets Committee of the City Council are dissatisfied with the original lighting of St. John’s Market and consider that the time has come when the place should be electrically lighted.”
The main market days in the beginning were Wednesday and Saturday; but there was a considerable market every day. Market regulations were created to provide equal protection to buyer and seller; carrying rates were regulated and approved carriers were designated. The hall was cleaned every night by twelve searchers
Old St John The Baptist’s Church, Pilling
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