What Is The Name Of Military Intelligence Organization Of Israel

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The Yellow Book is an intelligence product, a collection of information fed into a central database maintained by the C-II intelligence division of the Army General Staff. Units likely to contribute to this include the intelligence divisions of the Air Force, National Police, National Guard, and Treasury Police, among others, as well as the different intelligence layers within the Salvadoran Armed Forces (II divisions operating at the S-Military district, brigade, and battalion levels). A handwritten note on the cover instructs: “Use. Make copies of the photos and put them on your bulletin board so you can recognize your enemies.”

What Is The Name Of Military Intelligence Organization Of Israel

The Yellow Book’s introductory note, “Form and Coding,” summarizes the organization of the report and explains that its purpose is to assist in the identification of targets by military units in the field, standardize how information about suspects is transmitted by radio and telephone, and centralize the report. Collection of intelligence revealed by military intelligence on unidentified suspects, C-II division of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Armed Forces (EMCFA). “Tier C” of the list (unidentified persons or persons identified only by pseudonyms) is included so that any unit that manages to obtain information about any of them sends it to EMCFA’s C-II for the relevant application. The structure of the book, he continues, “makes it easier to present photographs of persons without information/names,” suggesting that the book may have been used during interrogation or interrogation. Despite these guidelines, it is not known exactly how the Yellow Book is used in the field.

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Especially on the cover of the Yellow Book, there are commentaries referring to “COMMAND DECISION” and “ARCHIVE D-II”. The “D-II” is probably an anachronistic reference to the “Department” organizational structure within the EMCFA, which was replaced by a “Partner” (“Partner”) in the 1980s.

The diagram below is a simplified representation of the organizational structure of the Salvadoran security forces in the late 1980s, based on research published in 1992 by the Salvadoran-American NGO El Rescate. The highlighted identities are directly stated in the Yellow Book. At the district level, each brigade will have an intelligence division (designated “S-II”). Brigades will coordinate directly with the police through alternative communication channels.

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In a 1987 interview, former C-II director Colonel Juan Orlando Zepeda detailed how the Armed Forces Intelligence Division was structured.[ii] According to Zepeda, the C-II included several different mission-oriented groups; An operations division consisting of Intelligence Squad, Emergency Analysis and Interception of Technical Signals groups, as well as a general counterintelligence group and a document analysis unit and a unit for interrogation procedures. Armed Forces Joint Staff gave instructions for the mobilization of C-II groups.

The emphasis in the Yellow Book on the use of intelligence to identify not only guerrilla fighters but also “enemy” civilians is in line with the findings of human rights investigations conducted over the years. The United Nations Commission of Truth for El Salvador (UNTC) report, For example, From Madness to Hope: The 12 Years War in El Salvador, dating back to the 1960s, “[National security] institutions helped consolidate a period of military hegemony in El Salvador and terrorist organizations selectively planted terror among those allegedly subversive identified by intelligence services. Thus, the military’s dominance over civil society was consolidated through pressure to keep society in check” (p125). The commission called for Salvadoran intelligence agencies to be targeted for reform as part of the post-war peace and reconciliation process.

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“It is particularly important to draw attention to repeated abuses by the intelligence services of the security forces and the armed forces,” the UNTC report concluded. It is crucial for the future of El Salvador that the State pays attention to the use of its intelligence services and the exploitation of this branch of the Government to identify targets for murder or disappearance. Any investigation should result in both the institutional cleansing of the intelligence services and the identification of those responsible for this deviant practice” (p.129-30).

The UN Truth Commission has identified military intelligence with the proliferation of death squad activities. According to the UNTC report, “In many armed forces units, the intelligence unit (S-2) worked with the death squad model. Operations were carried out by armed forces, usually in plain clothes, using unmarked and unmarked vehicles.”

Death squad operations were also carried out at the national level: “The Intelligence Division had sub-sections such as operations and intelligence. In the Intelligence subdivision there was a smaller group responsible for ‘dirty work’ specializing in interrogation, torture and execution.” In the report, it was determined that within the Civil Affairs Branch of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, the army “has a secret intelligence unit to spy on civilian political targets, and each unit receives information from the S-2 divisions”. military unit or security force. The purpose of this unit was to gather information for planning direct actions involving the ‘elimination’ of individuals. In some cases, such plans were transmitted as actual orders to operational units in the various security forces or to the armed forces themselves.”[iii]

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Persons listed in the Yellow Book were also targeted by death squads. For example, a 1980 statement signed by the “Secret Anti-Communist Army”, a coalition of seven far-right terrorist groups, circulated a “black list” of more than 200 names, of which at least 32 were in the Yellow Book.

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U.S. security aid flowed into counterinsurgency efforts in El Salvador throughout the war, totaling $5 billion by 1992. It involved millions of dollars for advanced intelligence gathering. While there is no direct evidence to suggest that the US was involved in the creation of the Yellow Book, the extensive material and operational support provided by the US to Salvadoran intelligence services touched upon themes at the heart of the Yellow Book.

The outline of the US security program was developed by Brigadier General Fred Woerner in 1981 when he was leading a US military team to El Salvador to conduct an assessment of the government’s war strategy for the new Reagan administration. that year, he proposed a massive injection of US military aid to help Salvadoran security forces win what the report calls a “strategic victory.”

One of the primary concerns of the Woerner team with the armed forces was poor military intelligence capacity, and “the lack of good intelligence and derivative understanding of enemy capabilities and intentions … is a particularly limiting factor.”[iv] Intelligence to address deficiencies in Salvadoran intelligence, Woerner team intelligence He proposed training, special intelligence equipment, and the creation of an intelligence communications network.

One of the ways Woerner proposed to separate the rebels from their base among the Salvadoran people and identify militant supporters was the creation of “population control measures.” The Woerner Report recommended the creation of a national register and new national identity document that would be stored in a central file, along with photographs and fingerprints, and advised the military to “Publish and maintain blacklists of photographs of all known insurgents and their nicknames at ports of entry”. exit, border crossing points and internal control points.”[v]

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In the years following the Woerner team’s assessment, US security assistance increased rapidly, including support for all aspects of the Salvadoran intelligence apparatus. According to its Director, Colonel Juan Orlando Zepeda, the National Intelligence Directorate received foreign aid from the CIA, while the C-II worked most closely with the US Military Group (USMILGP) and the Central American Joint Intelligence Team, or CAJIT.[vi]

Created in 1983 by the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), CAJIT was an intelligence “fusion center” comprised of approximately 100 U.S. military and intelligence analysts, including officers from the CIA and National Security Agency working from the Pentagon to provide strategic and tactical intelligence. To the US Southern Command in Panama and to US allies in the region.[vii] As disclosed in the 2011 DIA internal date, CAJIT “used powerful databases and advanced communications technology to rapidly analyze and disseminate intelligence used in US support for the Salvadoran military. a way to improve their operations against the insurgents.”[viii]

According to Colonel James J. Steele, commander of the Center US Military Group, US assistance to Salvadoran military intelligence through CAJIT and MILGP focused specifically on developing human intelligence, or “HUMINT,” at the brigade level. -1980s. “The main focus in an insurgency should be the humanitarian aspects,” he told an interviewer in 1986. “This means agent networks. It means getting people to talk to you.” Steele added that it’s especially important to identify insurgents by name, “You’re doing fieldwork and you learn that there can be 50 guerrillas in the industry you’re entering. You know there are 50 because you have their names, their battle rank, and you know how they’re equipped etc. It makes it much easier to get there and deal with them.” .”[ix]

The Yellow Book corresponds to a common practice among the Latin American armed forces during the cold war to compile lists of insurgents and

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