What Percent Of Green House Gases Come Form Us Military – To effectively reduce emissions, we need to know where they come from – which sectors contribute the most? How can we use this understanding to develop effective solutions and mitigation strategies?
Below we look at the breakdown of emissions – total greenhouse gases, plus carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide individually – by sector.
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- Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Country And Sector (infographic)
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- Overview Of Greenhouse Gases
What Percent Of Green House Gases Come Form Us Military
To prevent severe climate change, we must rapidly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. The world emits approximately 50 billion tons of greenhouse gases each year
Balancing Act: Can Petrochemicals Be Both Emissions Free And Zero Waste?
In this post I present only one graph, but it is an important one – it shows the breakdown of global greenhouse gas emissions in 2016.2 This is the latest breakdown of global emissions by sector, published by Climate Watch and the World Resources Institute.3
The overall picture you see from this diagram is that nearly three-quarters of emissions come from energy use; almost one fifth of agriculture and land use
To know what is included in each sector category, I provide a brief description of each. These descriptions are based on explanations provided in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and a methodology paper prepared by the
It is clear from this outline that a range of sectors and processes contribute to global emissions. This means there is no single or simple solution to tackling climate change. Focusing on electricity, or transportation, or food, or deforestation alone is insufficient.
Total Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends And Projections In Europe — European Environment Agency
Even within the energy sector – which accounts for almost three quarters of emissions – there is no simple solution. Even if we can fully decarbonize our electricity supply, we will also need to electrify all our heating and road transport. And we’ll still have emissions from shipping and aviation – for which we don’t yet have low-carbon technologies – to deal with.
Chemical and petrochemical (3.6%): energy-related emissions from the production of fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, refrigerants, oil and gas extraction, etc.
Food and tobacco (1%): energy-related emissions from the manufacture of tobacco products and food processing (the conversion of raw agricultural products into their final products, such as the conversion of wheat into bread).
Non-ferrous metals: 0.7%: Non-ferrous metals are metals that contain very little iron: they include aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin, titanium and zinc, and alloys such as copper. The production of these metals requires energy which results in emissions.
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Other industries (10.6%): energy-related emissions from manufacturing in other industries, including mining and quarrying, construction, textiles, wood products and transport equipment (such as car manufacturing).
This includes a small amount of electricity (indirect emissions) as well as all direct emissions from burning fossil fuels to power transport activities. These figures do not include emissions from the manufacture of motor vehicles or other transport equipment – these are included in the previous point ‘Energy use in industry’.
Road transport (11.9%): emissions from the combustion of petrol and diesel from all forms of road transport which include cars, trucks, lorries, motorbikes and buses. Sixty percent of road transport emissions come from passenger travel (cars, motorbikes and buses); and the remaining forty percent from road freight (trucks and lorries). This means that, if we could electrify the entire road transport sector and switch to a fully decarbonised electricity mix, we could feasibly reduce global emissions by 11.9%.
Aviation (1.9%): emissions from passenger travel and cargo, and domestic and international aviation. 81% of aviation emissions come from passenger travel; and 19% from cargo.7 From passenger aviation, 60% of the emissions come from international travel, and 40% from domestic.
Greenhouse Gas Emissions By Country And Sector (infographic)
Shipping (1.7%): emissions from burning petrol or diesel on boats. This includes both passenger and cargo maritime journeys.
Pipeline (0.3%): Fuels and commodities (eg oil, gas, water or steam) often need to be transported (either within or between countries) via pipelines. This requires energy input, which results in emissions. Poorly constructed pipelines can also leak, leading to the direct release of methane into the atmosphere – however this aspect is captured in the category ‘Fugarate emissions from energy production’.
Residential buildings (10.9%): energy-related emissions from the generation of electricity for lighting, appliances, cooking, etc. and heating at home.
Commercial buildings (6.6%): energy-related emissions from the generation of electricity for lighting, appliances, etc. and heating in commercial buildings such as offices, restaurants and shops.
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Energy-related emissions from the production of energy from other fuels including electricity and heat from biomass; on-site heat sources; combined heat and power (CHP); nuclear industry; and pumped hydroelectric storage.
Fugitive emissions from oil and gas (3.9%): fugitive emissions are the often accidental leakage of methane into the atmosphere during oil and gas extraction and transportation, from damaged or poorly maintained pipelines. It also includes flaring – the intentional burning of gas at oil facilities. Oil wells can release gases, including methane, during extraction – producers often don’t have an existing network of pipelines to transport them, or it wouldn’t make economic sense to provide the infrastructure needed to efficiently capture and store them not transport. But under environmental regulations, they have to deal with it somehow: deliberately burning it is often a cheap way to do it.
Energy-related emissions from the use of machinery in agriculture and fishing, such as fuel for farm machinery and fishing vessels.
Cement (3%): carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of a chemical conversion process used in the manufacture of clinker, a component of cement. In this reaction, limestone (CaCO
Visualizing Global Per Capita Co2 Emissions
As a by-product. Cement production also produces emissions from energy inputs – these related emissions are included in ‘Energy use in industry’.
Chemicals and petrochemicals (2.2%): greenhouse gases can be produced as a by-product of chemical processes – for example CO2
Can be released during the production of ammonia, which is used for purifying water supplies, cleaning products and as a refrigerant, and is used in the manufacture of many materials, including plastics, fertilizers, pesticides and textiles. Chemical and petrochemical manufacturing also produces emissions from energy inputs – these related emissions are included in ‘Energy use in industry’.
Wastewater (1.3%): organic matter and remains of animals, plants, humans and their waste products can collect in waste water systems. When this organic matter decomposes, it produces methane and nitrous oxide.
Why The Building Sector?
Landfills (1.9%): Landfills are often low-oxygen environments. In these environments, organic matter is converted to methane as it decomposes.
Agriculture, Forestry and Land Use are directly responsible for 18.4% of greenhouse gas emissions. The food system as a whole – including refrigeration, food processing, packaging and transport – is responsible for about one quarter of greenhouse gas emissions. We look at this in detail here.
Grassland (0.1%): when grassland is degraded, these soils can lose carbon and convert to carbon dioxide in the process. Conversely, when grassland is restored (for example from cropland), carbon can be sequestered. Emissions here therefore refers to the net balance of these carbon losses and gains from grassland biomass and soils.
Cropland (1.4%): depending on the management practices used on cropland, carbon can be lost or sequestered in soils and biomass. This affects the balance of carbon dioxide emissions: CO
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Can be released when crop fields are broken down; or sequestered when they are repaired. The net change in carbon stock is captured in the release of carbon dioxide. It does not include pastures for livestock.
Deforestation (2.2%): net emission of carbon dioxide due to changes in forestry cover. This means reforestation is counted as ‘negative emissions’ and deforestation as ‘positive emissions’. Net forestry change is therefore the difference between forestry loss and gain. Emissions are based on lost carbon stocks from forests and changes in carbon stores in forest soils.
Crop burning (3.5%): the burning of agricultural residues – remaining vegetation from crops such as rice, wheat, sugar cane and other crops – releases carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and methane.
Rice cultivation (1.3%): flooded rice fields produce methane through a process called ‘anaerobic digestion’. Organic matter in the soil is converted to methane due to the low-oxygen environment of waterlogged rice fields. 1.3% seems substantial, but it is important to put it in context: rice accounts for about one-fifth of the world’s supply of calories, and is a staple crop for billions of people worldwide.8
Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Fact Sheets: Tools & Resources: Environmental Resilience Institute: Indiana University
Agricultural soils (4.1%): Nitrous oxide – a strong greenhouse gas – is produced when synthetic nitrogen fertilizers are applied to soils. This includes exemptions from agricultural land for all agricultural products – including food for direct human consumption, animal feed, biofuels and other non-food crops (such as tobacco and cotton).
Livestock and manure (5.8%): animals (mainly ruminants, such as cattle and sheep) produce greenhouse gases through a process called ‘enteric fermentation’ – when microbes in their digestive system break down food, they produce methane as a by-product. This means beef and lamb tend to have a high carbon footprint, and eating less is an effective way to reduce emissions from your diet.
Nitrous oxide and methane can be produced from the decomposition of animal manure under low oxygen conditions. This often occurs when large numbers of animals are managed in a confined area (such as dairy farms, beef feedlots, and pig and poultry farms), where manure is typically stored in large piles or disposed of in lagoons and other types of manure management systems. “Livestock” emissions here only include direct emissions from livestock – they do not take into account the impact of land use change for grazing or livestock feed.
This graph shows the breakdown of the total greenhouse
Overview Of Greenhouse Gases
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